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Endogenous Fructose Metabolism Could Explain the Warburg Effect and the Protection of SGLT2 Inhibitors in Chronic Kidney Disease.

NAKAGAWA Takahiko 60641595 SANCHEZ-LOZADA Laura G. ANDRES-HERMANDO Ana KOJIMA Hideto 00225434 0000-0002-4781-2052 KASAHARA Masato RODRIGUEZ-ITURBE Bernardo BJORNSTAD Petter LANASPA Miguel A. JOHNSON Richard J. 滋賀医科大学

2021.06.16

概要

Chronic low-grade inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases, including chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Inflammation is a biologically active process accompanied with biochemical changes involving energy, amino acid, lipid and nucleotides. Recently, glycolysis has been observed to be increased in several inflammatory disorders, including several types of kidney disease. However, the factors initiating glycolysis remains unclear. Added sugars containing fructose are present in nearly 70 percent of processed foods and have been implicated in the etiology of many non-communicable diseases. In the kidney, fructose is transported into the proximal tubules via several transporters to mediate pathophysiological processes. Fructose can be generated in the kidney during glucose reabsorption (such as in diabetes) as well as from intra-renal hypoxia that occurs in CKD. Fructose metabolism also provides biosynthetic precursors for inflammation by switching the intracellular metabolic profile from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis despite the availability of oxygen, which is similar to the Warburg effect in cancer. Importantly, uric acid, a byproduct of fructose metabolism, likely plays a key role in favoring glycolysis by stimulating inflammation and suppressing aconitase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. A consequent accumulation of glycolytic intermediates connects to the production of biosynthetic precursors, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, to meet the increased energy demand for the local inflammation. Here, we discuss the possibility of fructose and uric acid may mediate a metabolic switch toward glycolysis in CKD. We also suggest that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may slow the progression of CKD by reducing intrarenal glucose, and subsequently fructose levels.

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Conflict of Interest: ML, LS-L and RJ have equity in a start-up company

developing fructokinase inhibitors (Colorado Research Partners LLC). TN and

RJ also have equity with XORTX therapeutics which is developing novel xanthine

oxidase inhibitors. RJ is also a consultant for Horizon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. BR-I is

a recipient of the Cátedra Salvador Zubirán, Universidad Nacional de México and

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de

June 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 694457

Nakagawa et al.

Fructose Causes Chronic Kidney Disease

Copyright © 2021 Nakagawa, Sanchez-Lozada, Andres-Hernando, Kojima,

Kasahara, Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bjornstad, Lanaspa and Johnson. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution

License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted,

provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the

original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic

practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with

these terms.

México, Mexico. PB has acted as a consultant for AstraZeneca, Bayer, BristolMyers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli-Lilly, Sanofi, Novo Nordisk, and

Horizon Pharma. PB serves on the advisory boards of AstraZeneca, Boehringer

Ingelheim, Novo Nordisk and XORTX.

The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of

any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential

conflict of interest.

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June 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 694457

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