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Assessments and Improvements for Nutritional Management of Captive Colobine Monkeys in Temperate Region

星野, 智 岐阜大学

2022.03.31

概要

飼育下希少動物の繁殖を促進するには,栄養管理の改善が重要な課題である。本論文は,葉食であり,複胃を持ち,霊長類の中では唯一の前腸発酵動物であるコロブス類(Colobine)の繊維およびタンパク質の消化生理の特徴を明らかにするとともに,温帯地域では秋から冬にかけて新鮮な樹葉を入手することが難しいために飼育が難しいとされる本類の栄養管理における改善方法を明らかにすることを目的とした。

本論文は7章で構成されている。第1章および2章では,コロブス類の解剖学的および生態学的知見による食性の特徴を示しつつ,希少種であるがゆえに消化生理学的な知見が不足し,飼育管理を困難にしている点を指摘し,その解決に必要な課題を提示している。

第3章と第4章では消化生理の特徴について,まずコロブス類の繊維消化能力を明らかにすることを目的に,3室(tripartite)および4室(praesaccusを加えたquadripartite)の胃をもつ種の消化率を比較し,さらに文献データを加えメタ解析することで,4室の種では3室の種と比較して,同程度の繊維摂食レベルでより高い繊維消化率を示すことを明らかにした。また,コロブス類のタンパク質源としての胃内細菌の利用性を,尿中プリン代謝産物(PD:アラントイン,尿酸,キサンチン,ヒポキサンチン)を指標として評価し,コロブス類は前腸発酵する有蹄類と同様に,タンパク質源として胃内細菌を利用している可能性が高いことを示唆した。

第5章および6章では,栄養管理の改善に注目し,栄養管理に起因する疾病の治療・剖検記録をもとに,コロブス類の一種であるテングザル(Nasalis larvatus)について冬季間に給与している樹葉のCa/P比が適正値を大きく上回ることにより高Ca血漿と腎不全が引き起こされていることをつきとめ,Caやエネルギー給与量を考慮して飼料構成を改善することで腎不全を予防できることを具体的に示した。さらに,温帯地域の動物園において,コロブス類により適切な高繊維飼料を季節によらず給与することを目的に,常緑樹2種(Quercus myrsinifoliaおよびCastanops issieb oldii)と落葉樹1種(Cerasus×yedoensis)をサイレージ調製し,樹葉サイレージでは乳酸発酵が起こりにくいものの品質と栄養価には影響がなく,動物の嗜好性に対する影響も少ないことを明らかにし,コロブス類を含む中型霊長類への適切な高繊維飼料として樹葉サイレージが利用可能であることを示唆した。

第7章では,本研究で得られた知見をまとめ,コロブス類の特徴的な消化生理が,栄養管理を難しくする要因となるが,疾病の臨床記録や慣行的な飼料設計を精査することで,栄養管理方法の改善が可能であると述べている。また,コロブス類のうち,とくに4室の胃を持つ種では,繊維成分の消化能力が高いことに考慮した飼料設計を行う必要があるが,樹葉サイレージを利用することで温帯域でも高繊維質の食事を継続的に与えることができると結論づけている。

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